Appendix - colour (by Chris Long)
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'Sensitising Dyes and their Application', in C.E.K. Mees,
From Dry Plates to Ektachrome Film (New York:
Ziff-Davis Publications, 196 1), p. 119.
In fact, panchromatic plates were not in general use
until the 1930s. The first commercial panchromatic emulsion
produced by KODAK was used for a special Gaumont cin6
colour process in 1913, but even in the cinema, panchromatic
emulsions were not in general use until the advent of
Launceston chemist Frank Styant Browne demonstrated some
form of three-colour photography
on 9 September
1897. See 'Northern Tasmanian Camera Club',
Launceston Examiner, 17 September 1897, This may have
a complex tinting and toning process.
See also Northern Tasmanian Camera Club Minutes for 9
September 1897, held at Northern Regional Library, Launceston,
and A.P.-R, (October 1897): p.24.
(August 1899): p.3, and A.PJ. (August 1899): p.66, refer
to the 'projection'
of his Ives process transparencies.
For an impression of the scale of Blow's
Crown Studio enterprise, seeM.E.A., pp. 104,243.
description of the Ives process may be found in Brian
Coe, Colour Photography:
The First Hundred Years (London:
Ash and Grant, 1978), pp.34-42. The Kromskop
projector is shown on p.40.
Perier, 'Some Comments on Jack Cato's Professional Photographic "Story
of the Camera in Australia"',
ms. c.1955, National Library of Australia,
Blow apparently had a consistent interest in new processes.
In addition to his commercial development of silver gelatin
paper in the early 1890s, he demonstrated X-rays and
exhibited local cine films c. 1898 at his studio, which
was known as the Sydney Polytechnic when used for public
film shows. For details of the film output of Blow's
Polytechnic, see Eric Reade, The Australian Screen (Melbourne:
Lansdowne Press, 1975), pp. 13-15. Blow later reported
on John Joly's additive screen process in A.P.-R. (August
Tasmanian Camera Club', A.P.J. (February 1899): p.47,
See also, Minutes of the Northern Tasmanian Camera
Club at Northern Regional Library, Launceston,
and G.L. Johnson, Photography in Colours, 2nd edn (London:
Routledge and Sons,
1914), p. 140, for a diagram of Ives' Kromskop direct
Photography', Launceston Examiner, 10 March 1905. This
article refers mainly to the colour experiments
of Styant Browne,
but credits Aebi with priority 'by a few weeks'.
For an account of Aebi's work, see A.Pj Almanac for 1898,
Photographic Society: Colours as they are seen
in Nature produced by Three-Colour Process', A.P.-R.
p. 195. A report in A.P.-R. Uanuary 1908):
p.5 tends to suggest that most of Wilkinson's early colour
work was done with
the Sanger-Shepherd system.
Extensive notes on the manipulation of triseparation photography
were published in 1914 by G.L. Johnson, Photography in
Colours, op. cit., pp. 138-68. See also Konig and Wall,
Photography and E.J. Wall, The History of ThreeColour Photography
(Boston: American Photographic Co., 1925).
Pioneer researcher on early colour processes, C.E.K. Mees
(From Dry Plates to Ektachrome), op.cit., pp.209-10, said
photography: 'The early subtractive processes of colour
(print) photography were used on a large scale in only
of photographic work (in America). They were used for commercial
and advertising photographs; and they were used in professional
motion picture photography.'
Mees further states: 'The complicated operations involved
in making colour photographs by the subtractive (print)
process limited its use to a few expert commercial photographers.'
type of colour printing paper called 'Uto-colour' paper was
available from 1904 in various forms until the
of World War One. It was very unstable on exposure to
contact printing through a colour transparency in excess
of two hours under bright sunlight. Such exposure often
original transparency, or baked the potato starch grains!
The prints were also of poor colour fidelity (see Brian Coe, Colour
Photography, op. cit., p. 13 1). Styant Browne demonstrated Utocolour
paper to the Northern Tasmanian Camera Club in 1912, but none of
the prints made at this time are likely to have survived.
Brian Coe, Colour Photography, op. cit., pp.49-52.
- The Camera Club', A.P.-R. (January 1908): p.35, states
that F.E. Burbury
had received 'the first
arrive in Australia'. However,
F.A. Joyner published his first article on the autochrome plates
in the Adelaide Register of 28 December 1907.
A.P.J. (January 1908): p.23 refers to an article
in the Launceston Daily Telegraph describing Lithgow
and Burbury's autochromes. The A.P.J. also states that 'Mr
Lithgow believes he is the first worker south of the line to produce
the autochrome pictures'.
See also Winifred Sinclair and Elizabeth Christenson, Thomas
Burbury 1809-1870: A Pioneer of Van Diemen's Land (Melbourne:
W. Sinclair, 1979), p.63, for
a few notes on Francis Burbury.
Express, 3 August 1957, contains an article of reminiscences
by Vaudry Robinson which
includes a mention of the early colour work of Burbury,
autochromes are held at the National Library of Australia,
Canberra, and were mentioned in A.P.-R. (January
dearth of Australian publications employing full three-colour
reproduction before World War One was
probably part of the reason,
there being no commercial
outlet for the publication of colour advertising photographs. The
situation improved a little in the 1920s with the introduction
of quality colour
such as The Home.
(January 1908): p.5.
(March 1908) p.100, refers to an undated article on autochromes
taken by professional photographer Alfred Stump
(c. 1861-1925) in the Adelaide
A.W. Dobbie (1843-1912) was another amateur photographer in the
Australian Photographic Society.
Plates', A.P.-R. (April 1908): p. 153. Andrew Barrie
a photographer at the Talma
Paterson worked at Paterson, Shugg & Co.
(August 1909); p.436 (in the course of a report on the
of the Northern Tasmanian Camera Club in 1909).
See also an undated cutting
from the Launceston Examiner, referring, in passing, to Styant
Browne's 1909 award
for colour work; and Styant Browne Scrapbook (held by Mrs LT.
are about seventy-five colour stereos in the Whitling
collection held by the War Memorial.
Most are autochromes,
but there are a few Dufay
from the mid- 1 930s.
(October 1911): p.307.
regular dot-screen processes included the Warner-Powrie
Krayn (1907); Dufay Dioptichrome (1909); Omnicolore
(1907); Thames (1908);
Baker Duplex (1926). None of these had much commercial
success by comparison with Paget and autochrome. For
of the colour screens
used in these various systems, see Brian Coe,
Colour Photography, op. cit.,
Brian Coe, Colour Photography, op. cit., pp.61-71 and
Britishjournal of Photography - ColourSupplement
1912 and 5 March 1915). H.P.J. Uanuary 1919): p.31.
an account of Hurley's war photography, see D,P. Millar,
From Snowdrift to Shellfire (Sydney: David Ell Press, 1984),
Millar is less
interested in the colour work which he views as inferior
Hurley's black-and-white photography.
Hurley, 'War Photography', A.P. -R. (February 1919):
See D.P. Millar, Snowdrift to Shellfire op. cit., p.62.
Mitchell Library set is, in general, less faded and truer
in colour than that in the collection of the
Australian War Memorial. A project could be mounted to
make new colour screens
saturation, so that they can be bound in register
with the monochrome slides to reproduce accurate colour.
review, 'Colour Photography of the Battlefield', in British
Photography (7 June 1918). About thirty
were selected for this show from Hurley's extensive
colour library. Further colour photographs of the War were
by the French
photographer Jean Tournassou. One hundred and
seventy of Hurley's Paget colour photographs are held at
There may be some additional subjects in the
Mitchell Library collection.
A very small number of Paget colour plates taken at Gallipoli
in 1919 by Sir Hubert Wilkins are also held at the Australian
number of Paget plates from New Guinea have recently been
identified by Australian Museum staff, having previously
for blackand-white negatives. The plates
had lost their
referring to the Finlay process, Keith Henney in Colour
Photography for the Amateur (New York:
McGraw Hill, 1938) states: 'being on plates
may seem somewhat antiquated.'
(November 1922): p.584. These works were exhibited at the
Northern Tasmanian Camera Club's
November 1922. See also, J.G. Brannagan,
A Great Tasmanian: Frederick Smithies OBE (Launceston:
Regal Press, 1985).
description of the Finlay process is given in Brian Coe,
Colour Photography, op. cit., pp.68-9.
Keith Henney, Colour Photography,
op, cit., pp.94-8.
An advertising brochure for the Finlay process,
which the author holds, lists tenjournals usingthe
These include Harper's Bazaar, the Ladies Home
journal, The Sketch, The Sphere, The Studio and
The National Geographic magazine commenced reproducing
colour photographs from autochromes in 1917, but
by the late 1920s
they were using
several processes, including Finlay.
first colour cinematography activity occurred in February
with the visit of cameraman
of the London
Kinemacolour Company. By 2 March
he was screening Melbourne in Natural Colour at the Melbourne
Eric Reade, op.
cit., pp.55, 60. Numerous colour
were demonstrated in Australia during
the 1920s but no further local film production
in colour is known until 1928. In about 1929, H.J.
King shot a few reels of 'Kodacolour' lenticular colour
which had been
commercially launched in July 1928. This 16 mm film
enjoyed moderate success but was rendered obsolete by Kodachrome
in the late 1930s.
Brian Coe, Colour Photography, op. cit., p.72.
with Mel Nicholls, Sydney, by Chris Long and Graham Shirley,
30 June 1982.
Brian Coe, Colour Photography, op. cit., p.128.
(March 1937): p.135.
by the author, with Mrs Lucy King, Launceston, 1983.
Images of War and Peace: Colour Photography by Frank Hurley,
1914-18 (Canberra: Australian War Memorial,
point argued by Brian Coe, Colour Photography, op. cit.,
p.132, in recognition of the Kodachrome's
first of the
modern multiple layer (tri-pak) films.
reported by Gael Newton, June 1987.
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